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Most of the ramparts built in the 17th century were torn down, without ever having been besieged, to allay rural concerns over the city's hegemony.
The Treaty of Zürich between Austria, France, and Sardinia was signed in 1859.
Permanently settled for about 2000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli.
but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.
Zürich was the Federal capital for 1839–40, and consequently the victory of the Conservative party there in 1839 caused a great stir throughout Switzerland.
But when in 1845 the Radicals regained power at Zürich, which was again the Federal capital for 1845–46, Zürich took the lead in opposing the Sonderbund cantons.
The city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich.
Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof hill.
During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well.
The Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had started to fall into ruin. The abbess nominated the mayor, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city.